Purpose: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial. This study was undertaken to characterize and perform an antimicrobial susceptibility test on Leuconostoc sp. isolated from acute endodontic infections in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from June to October 2014. A questionnaire form was used to collect the clinical data. Biochemical standard techniques were used to isolate bacteria, and identification was made by API 20 Strep gallery. Antimicrobial susceptibility was carried out by the diffusion method on a solid medium.
Results: The age group of 19–40 years (67.7%) was more significant among the 93 patients included in the study. Acute cellulitis was accounted for 66.7% while acute apical periodontitis was observed in 33.3% of cases. Two exudate samples were positive to Leuconostoc sp. showing 100% sensitivity to lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin). On the other hand, they were 100% resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 50% resistant to the macrolides (spiramycin and erythromycin), and the 3rd generations of cephalosporins (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, cefixime, and ceftriaxone).
Conclusion: Leuconostoc sp. was associated with acute endodontic infections and an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium. The primary objective of the treatment of endodontic infection is to eliminate biofilms by a chemomechanical treatment. Dentists must avoid the overuse of antibiotics to prevent the emergence of antibiotic‐resistant bacterial strains.