e-ISSN 2459-1726
Turkish Endodontic Journal (TEJ) - Turk Endod J: 7 (2)
Volume: 7  Issue: 2 - 2022
1.Effect of single nucleotide polymorphism in the SCN9A, SCN10A, and SCN11A genes on postoperative pain
Nuray Akbıyık, Ertuğrul Karataş
doi: 10.14744/TEJ.2022.37450  Pages 47 - 55
Purpose: To investigate the association between postoperative pain intensity and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SCN9A, SCN10A, and SCN11A genes.
Methods: Ninety-five patients were included in the study. All the participants recorded their preoperative percussion and preoperative pain levels on a visual analog scale (VAS) before root canal treatment. After the treatment, a form including the VAS was given to the patients to record their pain values and use of analgesics on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 7th days after the treatment. DNA isolation and genotyping were performed and the association between polymorphisms and postoperative pain level was investigated.
Results: The AA genotype at the SNP rs6746030 and the CC genotype at rs4286289 of the SCN9A gene were significantly associated with higher postoperative pain levels. The CC genotype at SNP rs6801957 in the SCN10A gene was significantly associated with less postoperative pain.
Conclusion: The rs6746030 and rs4286289 SNPs in the SCN9A gene and rs6801957 in the SCN10A gene were associated with pain level after endodontic treatment.

2.Influence of instrument taper on the fracture strength of endodontically treated maxillary premolars
Devika R Krishnan, Prabath Singh V P, Nithin Mathew
doi: 10.14744/TEJ.2022.52824  Pages 56 - 62
Purpose: An increase in instrument taper decreases the amount of residual radicular dentin thickness (RRDT), thus increasing the fracture strength of teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the residual dentin thickness and evaluate the fracture strength and mode of fracture of endodontically treated bifurcated maxillary premolars with different tapered file systems.
Methods: Fifty bifurcated maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into five groups. Group 1, consisting of 10 intact teeth, served as control. The 40 remaining teeth were divided into four groups consisting of 10 specimens per group. Group 2: 30.02% K file, group 3: 30.04% K3 system, group 4: 30.06% Mtwo system, and group 5: 30.09% ProTaper Universal System. Chemomechanical preparation was done up to apical preparation ISO 30. Assessment of RRDT was performed using the pre- and post-instrumentation cone -beam computed tomography scans. The obturated specimens were then subjected to static loading in a universal testing machine until fracture, and fracture strength & and mode of fracture were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy analysis. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Tukeys HSD for multiple comparisons, with a significance level set at p< 0.05.
Results: The mean of difference in RRDT at 3 mm and 6 mm and the mean of maximum fracture loads were greatest for group 5: 30–9% ProTaper Universal System, while Group 2: 30-2% K file exhibited the least values among the experimental groups. There was a statistically significant difference in vertical and oblique loading between the experimental groups (p< 0.05). The most common mode of fracture was the crown-initiated vertical fractures in the root.
Conclusion: The findings showed that an increase in taper decreased the amount of residual dentin thickness, consequently increasing the fracture strength of maxillary premolars.

3.Water sorption, solubility, expansion, and brushing abrasion of different temporary filling materials
Mehmet Soybelli, Teslime Parlamış, Mehmet Ali Soylu, Merve Akbaş, Makbule Bilge Akbulut
doi: 10.14744/TEJ.2022.61587  Pages 63 - 68
Purpose: To compare three different zinc oxide/calcium sulfate-based temporary filling materials [Cavit G (3M ESPE), i-Pro N (i-dental), Cavitimi (Imicryl)] regarding water sorption, solubility, expansion, and brushing abrasion.
Methods: Twelve cylindrically shaped samples (6 × 2 mm) were prepared from each material to determine water sorption, solubility, and expansion. The dry mass (m1) and diameter (d1) of the samples were measured after desiccation, followed by measurement of the saturated masses (m2) and diameters (d2) after 7 days of immersion in water, and then measurement of the dehydrated dry masses (m3). Using these values, the water sorption, solubility, and expansion of the materials were calculated. Ten cylindrically shaped samples (8 × 2 mm) were prepared to evaluate mass changes due to brushing abrasion and their masses were recorded before and after brushing. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Significant differences were observed in the solubility (p< 0.05). Cavit G showed the highest solubility values, whereas Cavitimi exhibited the least. Mass loss and expansion values were significantly higher in Cavitimi (p< 0.05). Cavitimi showed the least water sorption (p< 0.05).
Conclusion: Cavitimi, a new temporary filling material, showed the highest mass loss and expansion, but the lowest values for solubility and water sorption. Cavit G exhibited the greatest solubility.

4.Comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of four different file systems at body temperature
Sıla Nur Usta, Ayhan Eymirli
doi: 10.14744/TEJ.2022.63634  Pages 69 - 73
Purpose: Maintaining the original root canal configuration and minimalizing iatrogenic errors are crucial to mechanical instrumentation. Thus, this study aims to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of newly developed EndoArt Blue and EndoArt Gold rotary files with ProTaper Gold and ProTaper Universal rotary files at body temperature.
Methods: The study included EndoArt Blue, EndoArt Gold, ProTaper Gold, and ProTaper Universal rotary file systems (n = 12/each group). Files were rotated in the artificial canals at a 60° angle and a 5-mm radius of curvature until fracture occurred. The time to fracture (Ttf) was recorded when a fracture was visually and/or audibly detected. The lengths of the fractured fragments (FL) were also measured. The Ttf and FL data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis, One-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test at the 5% significance level, respectively.
Results: EndoArt Blue files had the statistically highest fatigue resistance, and ProTaper Universal files had the lowest (p< 0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference between EndoArt Gold and ProTaper Gold file systems (p = 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in FL among the groups (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: EndoArt Blue file system had a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than EndoArt Gold, ProTaper Gold, and ProTaper Universal file systems.

5.Comparative evaluation of the effect of carbonic acid as a solvent on the microhardness of mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine, and root dentin: An in vitro study
Athira Perayil, Prasanth Dhanapal, Jojo Kottoor, Mohammed Sagir V M, BIJU P Babu, Kennet Chirayath
doi: 10.14744/TEJ.2022.84756  Pages 74 - 78
Purpose: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been shown a potential endodontic material in several clinical applications. Certain inherent disadvantages of MTA led to the introduction of Biodentine (BD). The retrieval of MTA and BD has been challenging for most clinicians. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effect of carbonic acid (CA) on the microhardness of MTA, BD, and root dentin (RD).
Methods: Uniform MTA, BD, and RD discs were prepared under standardized conditions following the manufacturer’s instructions. The preliminary microhardness of all the samples was tested after 24 h. All samples were soaked in CA for 5 min, and the microhardness was tested. The results were statistically analyzed using paired sample t-test.
Results: BD showed no statistically significant difference, whereas MTA and RD showed statistically significant differences in microhardness before and after exposure to CA.
Conclusion: CA can dissolve set MTA, but cannot dissolve BD. Nevertheless, CA, when used to remove set MTA, shows a detrimental effect on RD within 5 min of its exposure. Therefore, it is not clinically recommended to use CA for the retrieval of set MTA.

6.Use of three-dimensional endodontic guide in a maxillary premolar tooth with an obliterated root canal: A case report
Burçak Gürsoy Emek, Safa Kurnaz, Gülsen Kiraz, Arzu Kaya Mumcu
doi: 10.14744/TEJ.2022.76476  Pages 79 - 84
The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate direct access to obliterated root canals and root canal treatment with the aid of guided endodontics (GE) created with a three-dimensional (3D) printer using 3D imaging techniques. A female patient presented to our clinic with the complaint of percussion sensitivity in the left upper second premolar. According to the clinical and radiographic examination of the tooth, root canal obliteration was detected, extending 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction of the tooth. The root canals were localized using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The endodontic guide was prepared by transferring the images obtained with the intraoral scanner and the CBCT data to a 3D printer with a special computer program. Root canals were accessed with the help of this guide using endodontic bur. Root canal treatment of the patient was completed with routine endodontic procedures. After the treatment with the aid of GE, it was observed that the patient’s symptoms disappeared and the tooth was in function. In the treatment of teeth with obliterated root canals, many complications can be prevented by providing a safe endodontic intervention with the aid of GE obtained with 3D printers.

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